On July 25, a large freighter carrying 4000 tons of fuel ran aground in the environmentally sensitive coastal waters of Southern Mauritius. More than 10 days later, a fuel leak occurred on August 6. More than 1000 tons of fuel oil flowed from the ship into the sea, polluting the adjacent waters. The problem of cracks in the hull due to collision with the reef is still worsening. The cargo ship is likely to crack as a whole. It is worrying that 2500 tons of fuel oil is still waiting to be transferred on board (the fuel tank has been discharged). < p > < p > to save the blue ocean, more than 100000 non-governmental volunteers took part in the clean-up operation, regardless of the government’s “unified arrangements”. Because hair can quickly absorb oil, there is also a “haircut tide” in the local area. Residents crowded barber shops to donate their hair, and use it to make an unusual floating rod to clean up the oil slick. < / P > < p > “people have realized that they need to keep things in their own hands. We’re here to protect our animals and flora An environmental activist at the scene said. However, due to strong winds and ocean currents, the oil slick has begun to drift away from the coast, and the oil stains are scattered to the sea areas that people can’t reach. Bad sea conditions have also delayed international rescue, and the sea is likely to never return to the past. Mauritius is a volcanic island country in eastern Africa. It is located in the southwest of Indian Ocean. Surrounded by colorful coral reefs, it is a popular resort, known as “Paradise homeland”. It is also a marine reserve designated by the Convention on Wetlands of international importance, especially waterfowl habitat (Ramsar Convention for short). It has a variety of rare animals A unique bird species, it was once the only country on earth where dodos (extinct at the end of the 17th century) lived. < / P > < p > today’s sudden oil spill will not only have a serious impact on the local tourism industry, but also cause immeasurable ecological damage to the marine environment and fishing grounds of Mauritius. According to reports, the freighter ran aground at first, but the bad weather caused the ship to shake and tear, and began to spill oil more than ten days later. Poor sea conditions have also hindered salvage operations and may lead to further oil spill risks. On August 7, the government of Mauritius issued a “Declaration on environmental emergency”, asking for international support and saying that it should prepare for the worst. Oil is often called the “blood” of industry. After entering the industrialized society, petroleum can not only refine various types of fuels (gasoline, diesel, etc.), but also produce various products closely related to modern life (such as lubricating oil, asphalt, plastics, etc.) in the accompanying petrochemical industry, which contributes greatly to human beings. However, oil pollution also follows. In the process of oil exploitation, transportation, loading and unloading, processing and use, the pollution caused by leakage often occurs, and most of them appear in the ocean. In recent years, oil spills of more than 1000 tons at sea are common, such as the leakage of the Greek “prestige” oil tanker in 2002, the oil well leakage in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, and so on. < p > < p > once the oil leaks on the sea, because the density is smaller than water, it floats on the sea surface for a long time at first, and then spreads rapidly, forming a large area of thick oil film in the accident sea area. < / P > < p > firstly, the oil film will hinder the movement of penguins, turtles and other animals that have no flying ability in the polluted sea area; secondly, birds in the polluted sea area will be unable to fly because they are still preying in the sea, resulting in the adhesion of oil on their feathers, which reduces their flight ability or even can not fly at all; thirdly, the oil film will separate the atmosphere from the sea water, and the sea water can not get oxygen from the air, At the same time, the oil film can absorb and block the sunlight from entering into the sea water, which will greatly weaken the photosynthesis of marine plants, unable to grow normally, and destroy the marine ecological balance. < p > < p > US Newsweek described the scene at that time: the oil covered water crows raised their heads and wings and struggled to climb on the reef; the dying seagulls shook their heads and struggled in the oil slick powerlessly; the dolphins stretched their snout and mouth out of the floating oil layer, greedily breathing fresh air; the dead seabirds were washed up on the beach, lying there in three or two Inside. In addition, the oil film will inhibit the evaporation of sea water, resulting in the lack of water in the air on the sea surface and become dry. The sea water vapor is the main source of land water vapor, which makes the land climate near the accident sea area more dry, affects the aesthetic value of the seashore, and will be a devastating blow to the coastal tourism. < / P > < p > after oil spills into the ocean, if emergency treatment is not carried out, the oil floating on the sea will enter the deep sea due to the movement of waves and tides. Then, the oil will be absorbed by marine organisms and enter into these organisms, causing great harm, especially to juvenile fish, fish eggs or shrimp larvae. This has been confirmed by the 10th anniversary of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, published in the journal scientific reports. According to the report, the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 led to the detection of oil pollutants in thousands of organisms in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, long-term immersion of oil in seawater will decompose and produce a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus residues, which will lead to eutrophication of seawater and red tide, which will lead to serious damage to the ecological balance of marine coral reefs. < / P > < p > then, what should we do in the face of offshore oil pollution? Really “helpless”, can only “let it be”? The answer is clearly no. < / P > < p > although under the current level of science and technology, we can not completely eliminate the impact of oil on marine ecology, but we can minimize its destructive power. In the long run, there are mainly three aspects: first, improve energy efficiency and actively develop clean and renewable new energy to reduce human dependence on oil; second, further strengthen maritime safety, reduce the probability of oil leakage, and block the opportunity of oil directly entering the sea at the source; third, make emergency plans and technical equipment for offshore oil leakage treatment and disposal And do a good job in the long-term prevention and control measures of offshore oil pollution. < / P > < p > in the short term, when pollution occurs, we can try our best to restore the accident sea area environment under the strong self purification ability of the sea water itself, supplemented by artificial strengthening measures, so as to avoid the continuous pollution of the sea. The physical method can be divided into oil fence method, mechanical method and adsorption method. The oil barrier method is to limit the oil layer on the sea by using the oil fence, which can intercept, control and transfer the oil spill, and can quickly and efficiently prevent the oil diffusion and reduce the pollution area. Mechanical method is to use skimmer to recover floating oil quickly and effectively. Adsorption method uses lipophilic adsorption materials to make the spilled oil stick to its surface and be adsorbed and recovered. After the oil leakage accident occurs, the physical method is usually used for the first time. The biological method is to throw a large number of artificially cultivated and domesticated “oil decontamination microorganisms” into the oil polluted sea area, so that these biological armies can devour the leaked oil. From the perspective of environmental benefits, when cleaning up oil pollution, we should not only weigh the removal capacity of various methods, but also compare the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment results, and select the method with the least impact on the environment. This time, because it is the first time for Mauritius to face a fuel leakage accident of more than 1000 tons, there is neither corresponding emergency plan nor corresponding professional emergency rescue force, so it can only save its own home in time under the existing conditions. < / P > < p > because hair can quickly adsorb oil on its surface without absorbing seawater, a large number of Mauritian people cut their hair spontaneously and donate it voluntarily. Volunteers sew the hair and leaves together into a net, then put them in plastic bottles and let them float on the sea to collect fuel so much that it can be pumped out of the hose. At present, it is difficult to estimate how much pollution these measures can contain, and it is difficult to predict the final development trend. Satellite images show that the oil spill situation is still deteriorating. < p > < p > note: according to the latest news, the remaining oil in the ship’s oil tank has been drained, but people are still worried that the ship will crack and aggravate the pollution. Workers have deployed booms to control the oil pollution, and oil harvesters with pumps and onshore trucks are removing fuel from the water. < / P > < p > the Mauritius Wildlife Fund has been evacuating animals and plants from the affected areas. Reducing oil spills has now become an international effort.