Squid has attracted scientists’ attention for its complex nervous system and superb survival wisdom. However, scientists’ attempts to further study squid through genes have been stalled due to the technical difficulties of gene editing. Recently, scientists have successfully overcome this difficulty and realized the embryonic editing of squid through CRISPR technology. The squid with gene editing has been hatched for the first time in history, opening up a prospect for further research. The results were published in the journal Current Biology on July 30. The squid is one of the most intelligent marine organisms. Cephalopods such as squid, octopus and octopus are the largest invertebrates in the brain nervous system, which enables them to perform complex behaviors and instantaneous camouflage. Scientists have long admired these complex behaviors, trying to understand the mysterious wisdom of these soft creatures. Gene editing is undoubtedly the first way to reveal the brain mystery of these cephalopods. But scientists have failed to achieve this goal for a long time, partly because cephalopod embryos have a hard protective shell, which makes gene editing difficult. However, this breakthrough has been realized recently. Scientists have successfully designed the first gene editing squid with CRISPR, which has set up another important milestone in the history of gene editing. In addition, this progress also provides convenience for people to further explore brain science. Research on the developed brain of cephalopods can provide important reference for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease). < / P > < p > scientists believe that this breakthrough in gene editing allows them to explore the genes related to learning and memory and specific cephalopod behaviors in squid. “I think the use of these gene editing organisms by neurobiologists will be a huge leap forward,” said Joshua Rosenthal, a senior scientist at the University of Chicago’s Marine Biology Laboratory, who led the study < p > < p > Rosenthal and his colleagues studied the squid (doryteuthis pealeiii) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, by using crispr-cas9 technology to remove pigmentation genes from squid embryos, and eliminate the chromatin in in eye and skin cells, thus hatching transparent squid larvae. The results are published in the journal Current Biology. Rosenthal explained the idea that pigmentation is easy to observe, making it easier for them to judge whether gene editing is working. To their delight, the success of this experiment provides a reasonable starting point for the follow-up study. Because if the genes of cephalopods can be accurately edited, scientists can study the role of individual genes at a very basic level. Previously, scientists have successfully created gene editing mice, monkeys and other research animals to help a variety of medical and biological research. Gene editing of cephalopods is an area that people have not been able to overcome. There are many difficulties. On the one hand, scientists need to draw the squid genome map before they can accurately locate the gene position they want to edit. However, the squid genome map has not been completed until recently (it has not been published in the journal yet); on the other hand, how to edit the squid embryo without causing damage to it is also a difficult problem for researchers. < p > < p > Dr. Karen Crawford, a developmental biologist at the University of Maryland, St. Mary’s college and co-author of the study, has found a way to mix female squid eggs and male squid sperm under appropriate conditions to form suitable editable embryos. The next problem to be solved is to inject CRISPR system into embryos. The hard shell of the squid embryo makes it difficult for the needle to penetrate. Many of the injection attempts by the researchers ended with a broken needle. To this end, Crawford has developed a clever miniature scissors that can cut a small hole in the hard shell so that a special quartz needle can be inserted into the embryo. And this is not simple. For example, if the puncture hole is too large, there is a risk of embryo content logistics. But thanks to Crawford’s superb technology, the problem of embryo injection was eventually solved. < / P > < p > the long fin offshore squid (doryteuthis pealeii), also known as the squid, has a life span of less than one year. The squid migrates back and forth between coastal and coastal waters throughout the year. Usually, they migrate in groups to the waters near Cape Cod each spring. For decades, scientists have traveled to Woods Hole, southwest of Cape Cod, to collect and study these animals. These studies contributed to the breakthrough discoveries about nerve impulses, which were awarded by the Nobel Prize in 1963. However, the life span of long fin squid is too short. In the future, researchers will try to use gene editing techniques in smaller squid species, which are easier to grow in the laboratory. Scientists hope to be able to track the complex neural activity of squid through CRISPR technology. The technology could be used to insert so-called “detection genes,” which make fluorescent proteins glow when the nervous system is active. “It’s a creature with a huge nervous system and complex neural activity,” Rosenthal explained. It would be beneficial to be able to track the activity of these nerve cells. By observing multiple nerve cells at the same time, we can try to link the behavior of squid with its neural activity < / P > < p > if this is done, scientists will be able to study the brain structures associated with these animals’ superb camouflage abilities. You know, squid with extraordinary vision and a kind of skin cells called pigment cells, can almost instantly change color camouflage to avoid predators. And these cells are controlled by the nervous system. < / P > < p > Rosenthal said: “the body structure of cephalopods is very strange. They don’t look like any other creature. ” Scientists are also fascinated by the sucker on the squid’s flexible wrists and arms. These suckers can sense their surroundings and process sensory information, making cephalopods almost “think about their arms.”. < / P > < p > but with the progress of the research, more problems begin to emerge. Due to the advanced intelligence of these squid, there are some ethical doubts about their genetic modification. Research on cephalopods is strictly regulated in Canada and Europe, while there is no such measure in the United States. In the study presented in this article, the researchers also presented their own ethical guidelines for cephalopods in their research. < p > < p > scientists Barbara king and Lori Marino proposed in the journal Animal sensitivity that scientists should consider the treatment of animals when they use them for research. “It’s ironic that people want to study squid’s complex brain because of its complexity, but they completely ignore the fact that its complex brain may be the reason why people should stop modifying it,” they wrote When researchers make further achievements in gene editing, they have to start thinking early on how far their research should or might go.