For Huawei, the U.S. once again stepped in. Huawei’s 38 subsidiaries in 21 countries around the world were included in the entity list. So far, more than 150 affiliated companies, including Huawei, have been included in the entity list. < / P > < p > at present, no company, whether in the United States or not, can manufacture chips for Huawei and its listed affiliated companies as long as they use American technology. < / P > < p > a series of sanctions have cut off the supply of Huawei Qilin series of high-end 5g chips. Taiwan integrated circuit manufacturing Co., Ltd., which was originally Huawei’s OEM, will stop supplying Huawei from September 14. The chip < / P > < p > is very important for 5g. 5g communication equipment needs a large number of high-performance chips. Semiconductor, the raw material of chip, is an excellent conductive material. Ji Yang, a researcher at the Institute of semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, explains that the most common semiconductor device in our daily life is chip, so the industry often equates the concept of semiconductor and chip. < p > < p > cutting off the OEM of Huawei’s 5g chips will undoubtedly give Huawei a heavy blow. But can the United States retreat from this attack after another blow? In the second quarter of fiscal year 2020, net profit decreased by 29% compared with the same period last year. Over the same period, the net profit of another chip giant, micron technology, also fell by 75% year-on-year. In terms of the electronic design automation (EDA) industry dominated by the United States, EDA is known as the Pearl in the crown of the chip industry. Just as computers need operating systems, the design of chips cannot do without EDA software. The advantage of chip design software in the United States comes from the database. The richer the data, the better the software can be used. These data come from the feedback from the manufacturing side. < / P > < p > in essence, when there is an order demand, the factory can start work, and only when it starts to have capital and data feedback, can the process progress be promoted. If the order production cycle is frequent, the more data feedback, the EDA software will become more competitive. < p > < p > taking TSMC as an example, he explained that some processes of TSMC are well done, largely because all TSMC customers are big customers like Huawei, with large orders and extensive application scenarios. < / P > < p > without the huge order demand from China, it is difficult for us semiconductor enterprises to maintain their existing production capacity, and technological progress that requires huge investment may become a fantasy. < / P > < p > “they are all market economy, and American enterprises need to see the return on investment. The production line, which has spent several billion dollars, is not allowed to contract with Chinese enterprises now, and the largest customer will be gone. Who does it work for? Why does it invest? ” From this logic, the US sanctions are actually a paradox. To some extent, sanctions against China are equivalent to a heavy blow to America’s leading position in this industry. < p > < p > first, Qualcomm and Huawei reached a patent settlement in the near future. Huawei only paid 1.8 billion US dollars to continue to use its patented technology, which is far lower than Apple’s $4.5 billion. The company is also lobbying the U.S. government to call for the lifting of restrictions on the company’s chip sales to China. < / P > < p > because of the US government’s containment and suppression, the Boston Consulting report found that Huawei is actively looking for chip suppliers in South Korea and Europe; while oppo, Xiaomi and other Chinese enterprises, although they have not entered the list of entities in the United States for the time being, are also actively diversifying semiconductor suppliers in order to prevent potential risks. < / P > < p > the report predicts that the ban will directly threaten the US semiconductor industry’s revenue of about $49 billion from Chinese equipment manufacturers, which will account for 22% of the total revenue. < / P > < p > “although the U.S. government wants China to be isolated and then let the United States take over the world market. But these policies are more likely to be that the United States cuts itself off from the world. ” < p > < p > cut off the path of its own technological progress and cause harm to its own enterprises. The reason why the United States wants to do this kind of self loss of 1000 and hurt the enemy of 800 may have a deeper anxiety behind it… < / P > < p > in short, transistors are devices made of semiconductor materials, which can control voltage. Transistors on a chip can be made very small. There are billions of transistors on a chip the size of a fingernail. In December 1947, Bell Laboratories successfully developed the world’s first point contact transistor. In 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments Company invented the first chip Subsequently, the United States has been in an absolute leading position in the global chip industry. The rule of < / P > < p > is that the number of transistors that can be accommodated in an integrated circuit will double every 18-24 months, and its performance will double, while the price of the product will remain stable. Under the condition of stable cost, the size of transistors on the chip can be smaller and smaller, the number of transistors per unit area will be more and more, the amount of information that can be processed will be greater, and the performance of the chip will be improved. < / P > < p > today, in a small mobile phone, you can basically realize the functions that a desktop computer could achieve ten years ago, but the price is lower. This is the welfare brought by Moore’s law. However, up to now, the three elements of Moore’s law have been shaken. The size of semiconductor transistors has gradually reached the physical limit and it is difficult to continue to shrink, which means that the number of transistors on the chip is difficult to continue to increase. < / P > < p > “Moore’s law used to grow 10 times every 5 years and 100 times every 10 years. Today, Moore’s law can only grow by a few percentage points a year, perhaps twice every 10 years. So Moore’s law is over. ” < p > < p > not only Huang Renxun, but also Morgan Stanley believed in a report that the development of traditional semiconductor manufacturing industry has slowed down, as evidenced by the failure of Moore’s law. At present, the advantages of leading overseas manufacturers are likely to diminish as cutting-edge development becomes increasingly challenging. < / P > < p > in order to measure the technological progress of chips, the concept of “process” is used in the industry. As the size of transistors on a chip decreases, the smaller the process is, and the more transistors can be accommodated on the chip. In other words, the smaller the process, the better the performance of the chip. < p > < p > take Intel, the leading chip maker, for example. In the 14 nm process, R & D has been difficult. Intel has been stuck at this level for five years. At 10 nm, Intel is also delaying. The 7-nanometer process was three years late, and when the first batch of 7-nanometer processors should be launched this year, the process was announced to be delayed by another six months. Cao Yun, who has worked for more than 10 years at SMIC, Italy France semiconductor and other chip giants, and is now the chief investment officer of a venture capital fund, told Tan Zhu: < / P > < p > in the 90nm process stage, the construction and equipment purchase cost of a chip factory is no more than 10 billion yuan. However, when it comes to 7 nanometers, this cost increases 10 times to close to 100 billion yuan, while TSMC is in charge of In the R & D 3-nanometer process, the R & D cost plus capital expenditure is at least RMB trillion. < / P > < p > on the one hand, the United States, which is in an advanced position in the chip industry, is about to enter a bottleneck. The new materials that can break through the existing limits are still far away from reality, and there are also China, the European Union and other latecomers. On the other hand, in 5g communication network, the downstream of the chip industry, Chinese enterprises have an advantage. Huawei, ZTE, oppo and China Academy of Telecommunications Science and technology have 36% of the necessary patents of 5g standard in the world, and 5g key technology patents rank first in the world. Ji Yang, a researcher at the Institute of semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, found that in recent years, the government’s understanding of the importance of the science and technology semiconductor industry has become more profound, and the supporting policies introduced are more specific, more and more numerous, and their efforts have been strengthened. < / P > < p > although it started late, China’s chip self-sufficiency rate is low, and high-end technology has been controlled by foreign manufacturers for a long time, China’s chip industry is focusing on accumulating strength and preparing for future breakthroughs. < / P > < p > with Moore’s law reaching the limit, the chip industry has gradually entered the post Moore era, and the rate of renewal has begun to decline. Ji Yang believes that now is the best time for China’s chip industry as a catch-up. On August 4, the State Council issued a number of policies to promote the high-quality development of integrated circuit industry and software industry in the new era. Companies with manufacturing process less than 28nm and operating period of more than 15 years can enjoy up to 10-year tax-free period. The support for the head company can be described as “epic level”. < / P > < p > not only SMIC, but also China microelectronics, North Huachuang, Tongfu microelectronics, Huatian technology, Huada Jiutian and other companies have made remarkable achievements in chip design software, wafer foundry and chip production, packaging and testing. < p > < p > take the domestic semiconductor packaging and testing industry as an example. It is the last link of chip manufacturing, which is used to protect the wafer wafer in semiconductor and connect the bare chip with external circuit board and other parts. The industry is not far from the world’s advanced level. < / P > < p > the three major local packaging and testing manufacturers, Huatian technology, Changdian technology and Tongfu micro power, have obtained about 30% of the market share. The sealing test is likely to break through in the short term and realize complete domestic substitution. < / P > < p > nine months ago, the second phase of the national integrated circuit industry investment fund was officially registered, with a registered capital of up to 204.1 billion yuan, at least leveraging the accumulated capital of more than one trillion yuan to help the industrial development. < / P > < p > “we should speed up the realization of major breakthroughs in chip technology and bravely climb the world’s semiconductor storage technology summit. The “two centenary goals” can not be achieved easily by beating drums and gongs. There are unprecedented opportunities and unprecedented challenges. ” The two “unprecedented” are not only the supervision of chip industry and semiconductor storage technology, but also the earnest expectation of China’s science and technology to climb the world summit. < / P > < p > countless sleepless nights, countless lights flickered all night in Zhangjiang, science and Technology Park, Bantian base, Wudaokou, Zhongguancun and Hefei high tech Zone. Hardworking and brave Chinese scientists and technicians are interpreting the answers in a silent but deafening way.